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GFDL authored CM2 papers:
The final configuration of the GFDL CM2.0 model was determined in early 2004. The first IPCC-related experiment to be run using CM2.0 (CM2Q_Control-1860_d2) was launched in late April 2004. Other CM2.0 IPCC-related experiments followed until the simulations were completed during autumn 2004. The second member of the CM2.x family of models, CM2.1, was finalized in the late summer of 2004 and the first CM2.1 IPCC-related experiments were launched in September 2004. Drafts of papers documenting various aspects of the CM2.0 and CM2.1 models have been submitted and analysis work continues at GFDL. The CM2.x papers began to appear in refereed journals in 2005. Additional papers authored by GFDL scientists and reporting on various aspects of these model simulations, will continue to appear for some time.

[NOAA bullet] A set of four CM2.x papers appear in a Special Section of the March 2006 edition of the Journal of Climate.

From the Journal of Climate, Volume 19, Number 5, March 2006:
  • Preface to the Special Section, T. Delworth. Journal of Climate, (2006), Vol. 19, No. 5, page 641.
    [HTML version of Preface]
  1. GFDL's CM2 global coupled climate models - Part 1: Formulation and simulation characteristics, Delworth et al., Journal of Climate, (2006), Vol. 19, No. 5, pages 643-674.
    [7.2 MB pdf]
  2. GFDL's CM2 global coupled climate models - Part 2: The baseline ocean simulation, Gnanadesikan et al., Journal of Climate, (2006), Vol. 19, No. 5, pages 675-697.
    [3.7 MB pdf]
  3. GFDL's CM2 global coupled climate models - Part 3: Tropical Pacific climate and ENSO, Wittenberg et al., Journal of Climate, (2006), Vol. 19, No. 5, pages 698-722.
    [4.6 MB pdf]
  4. GFDL's CM2 global coupled climate models - Part 4: Idealized climate response, Stouffer et al., Journal of Climate, (2006), Vol. 19, No. 5, 723-740.
    [2.8 MB pdf]

[NOAA bullet] Other papers that document various components of the CM2.x models are available for download. They include

  • CM2.x Ocean Component: A detailed paper documenting the formulation of the ocean component of the CM2 models, with a focus on 12 relatively novel features, has been published in Ocean Science.
    Formulation of an ocean model for global climate simulations, S.M. Griffies, A. Gnanadesikan, K.W. Dixon, J.P. Dunne, R. Gerdes, M.J. Harrison, A. Rosati, J. Russell, B.L. Samuels, M.J. Spelman, M. Winton, R. Zhang, Ocean Science, vol. 1, pages 45-79.
    [5 MB pdf]
  • CM2.0 Atmosphere & CM2.x Land Components:: A paper documenting a variant of the atmosphere and land model components of CM2.0 has recently appeared in the Journal of Climate.
    The New GFDL Global Atmosphere and Land Model AM2-LM2: Evaluation with Prescribed SST Simulations. The GFDL Global Atmospheric Model Development Team, Journal of Climate (2004), volume 17, number 24, pages 4641-4673.
    [3 MB pdf]
  • CM2.x Land Component: A variant of the land model component of the CM2.x models is documented in the following paper.
    Global modeling of land water and energy balances. Part I: The land dynamics (LaD) model. Milly, P. C. D., and A. B. Shmakin, Journal of Hydrometeorology, (2002), volume 3, number 3, pages 283-299.
    [0.5 MB pdf]

[NOAA bullet] Additional papers by GFDL authors that report on analyses of CM2.x model results include

  • Barotropic tidal mixing effects in a coupled climate model: Oceanic conditions in the Northern Atlantic, Lee, H-C., A. Rosati, and M.J. Spelman, Ocean Modelling, (2006), Vol. 11, pp. 464-477.
    [0.5MB pdf]
  • Simulation of Sahel drought in the 20th and 21st centuries, Held, I.M., T.L. Delworth, J. Lu, K.L. Findell, & T.R. Knutson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (2005), Vol. 102, number 50, pages 17891-17896.
    [0.8MB pdf]
  • Have anthropogenic aerosols delayed a greenhouse gas-induced weakening of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation?, Delworth, T.L., and K.W. Dixon, (2006), Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 33, L02606, doi:10.1029/2005GL024980.
    [0.6MB pdf]
  • The impact of aerosols on simulated ocean temperature and heat content in the 20th century, Delworth, T.L., V. Ramaswamy, and G. L. Stenchikov, (2005), Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32, L24709, doi:10.1029/2005GL024457.
    [2.1MB pdf]
  • Assessment of Twentieth Century Regional Surface Temperature Trends using the GFDL CM2 Coupled Models, Knutson, et al., Journal of Climate, (2006), Vol. 19, No. 9, pages 1624-1651.
    [4.9MB pdf]

Documentation provided to IPCC WG1 analysts about the GFDL CM2.0 and CM2.1 can be found at Model Information of Potential Use to the IPCC Lead Authors and the AR4: GFDL-CM2.0 and GFDL-CM2.1 (an external link).

Our FAQs web page also offers documentation of the forcings implemented in the GFDL CM2.X Model climate of the 20th century experiments (1861-2000).

Questions related to the GFDL CM2.x models may be directed to…

[email GFDL.Climate.Model.Info at noaa dot gov]